Actuary as a Career: Potential Career Paths

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If you are a mathematical genius, a love of logic, have problem solving skills with business awareness, good in communication and excellent in number crunching, think of a career as an actuary today.

Actuary – A Brief History

The actuarial profession gains a formal presence in 1848 after the Institute of Actuaries is established in London.

In India, the Actuarial Society of India (ASI) is established in 1944 and included in the international governing body of actuaries, the International Actuarial Association (IAA), in 1979. Traditionally, the actuarial profession was limited to the insurance sector but now, it expands to other industries as well.

Who Is an Actuary?

A business professional, an actuary has an innate capability to analyse the risk possibilities of a financial activity and mitigate the involved risks. An actuary is mostly needed in the insurance sector and pension programs where the task is to use financial theories, statistics and mathematics to study uncertain future events.

An actuary is a “part super-hero, part fortune-teller, part trusted advisor”,

To put it succinctly, any business necessitating management of financial risk requires the services of actuaries. Business segments like hospitals, employee benefit departments, investment firms, consulting firms, government departments and large corporations often hire actuaries.

According to the USA Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the actuary segment will see a26% growth between 2012 and 2022, which is much higher than average. As the career scope improves, actuaries will be expected to handle the development, pricing and evaluation of new insurance products, its risks and find ways to mitigate them.

An actuarial professional in USA earns an average annual pay of 93,680 USD (2012 data available from BLS) and the Indian counterpart with 10+ years of experience earns an average annual pay of 980,214 INR. Take a look at some statistics picked up from

Actuary as Career

The screenshot above shows the minimum and maximum salary of an actuarial analyst.

Actuary as Career 2

The second graph shows the gender divide; more men work as an actuary than women; one to four years is the highest years of experienced actuarial analysts employed in an organisation.

Actuarial Employment

The third graph above represents the breakdown of industries hiring the service of actuaries, according to BLS 2012 data. It shows that the professional presence is deeply entrenches within the insurance industry.

The Work Profile of an Actuary

As an actuary, you have to use mathematical equations, statistics and financial theories to determine the risk and uncertainty of involved financial costs. You have to assess risks and help the company to take measures to minimize the risk.

There is a high dependence on computer data modeling software, such as advanced financial modeling and statistics software to crunch data in a short span of time. Such advanced software helps to understand event probability and undertake cost forecasting.

You have to work within a team, which usually comprises of accountants, analysts and underwriters. Accountants help to determine the price of insurance products while analysts help to understand market demand. Underwriters accomplish product formalities.

An actuary has to:

  • collect and collate relevant statistical data for further study and analysis.
  • analyse the events and its risks that can increase the economic costs for the company; for instance, untimely death or a natural disaster will cause an insurance company to pay the insurance amount to the nominee and this pre-mature payment can cause losses to the insurance company.
  • design, test and implement various business strategies like pension plans and insurance investments to maximize profit and minimize losses. The actuary has to create in-depth reports containing charts and tables to explain the business strategies and its benefits.
  • explain the report/s to the shareholders like clients, executives and government officials.

When you gain higher experience, you are given supervisory roles. As an actuarial supervisor, you will be expected to advice the senior management, delegate tasks to your team and testify on proposed laws and regulations in front of the public.

If we talk about the insurance sector specifically, there are four types of actuariesthat you can find there. The four types are briefly explained.

1) Life Insurance Actuaries: The work involves analyzing the life expectancy of a person based on high risk factors like current age, health status and gender. Based on this analysis, insurance programs are developed for individuals and groups.

2) Health Insurance Actuaries: The work involves analyzing the life expectancy of a person solely based on the person’s current medical health, past health records, genetic history, occupation and geographic location. All these factors determine the expected cost of a promised health policy and cost of the organisation for policy adherence towards short-term and long-term medical expenses.

3) Pension and Retirement Actuaries: The profile involves assessing and evaluating the existing pension plans and derives future pension plans, and determines whether the company will possess sufficient funds in future to pay off employee pensions and other retirement benefits. Sometimes, you also need to advice individuals to best utilize their retirement money.

4) Property and Casualty Insurance Actuaries: The work involves analyzing the life expectancy of a person against the potential of injury and/or death due to automobile accidents. Factors like driving history, gender, age and car type factor here. As an actuary, you also have to develop insurance policies to insure people against property losses due to untoward events and natural disasters like fires.

Education, interest, knowledge and experience will help you to choose which type of actuary you want to become. Experienced actuaries also have the option to act as consultants for industries other than the industry sector, provided they have excellent understanding of that industry and its business components.

How to Become an Actuary?

Educationally, the basic requirement is to be a mathematics, statistics, finance or actuarial science graduate.

Actuarial science courses are offered in selected institutions in India. They are listed below. If you find more, let us know and we will update the list.

1.   Haryana Engineering College, Jagadhri, Haryana.
2.   Christ University, Bangalore, Karnataka.
3.   Bishop Herber College, Trichy, Tamil Nadu.
4.   Ernakulam Insurance Institute, Ernakulam, Kerala.
5.   The National Insurance Academy, Pune, Maharashtra.
6.   College Of Insurance, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
7.   Insurance Training Centre, Kolkata, West Bengal.
8.   Directorate of Distance Education, Karikudy, Tamil Nadu.
9.   College Of Vocational Studies, New Delhi.
10.  Tolami Institute Of Management Studies, Adupur, Gujarat.
11.   Kalyani University, Nadia District, West Bengal.
12.  Shri Vile Parle Kelavani Mandals Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
13.  Institute of Actuaries of India, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
14.  D.S Actuarial Education Services, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
15.  Amity School of Insurance and Actuarial Sciences, Noida, Uttar Pradesh.

If you want to study abroad in countries like South Africa, USA, Egypt, Canada, China, England, New Zealand, Australia, United Kingdom and others, here’s the updated list of actuarial sciences schools and colleges.

The graduation degree will let you begin as actuarial career as a “trainee” only. You will be assigned teams comprised of experienced actuaries. As a trainee, you have to spend time working on various departments like underwriting and marketing to understand how actuarial work happens.

To climb the next step and get better career opportunities, you need licenses and certifications. Often, your trainee company will support throughout the certification process by sponsoring study materials and/or covering the examination cost. Bonuses and salary raises are even offered with each certification exam passed.

Actuary License / Certification

The Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) are the two professional societies handling the task of granting “professional status” to trainee actuarial. Both the SOA and CAS grants “associate” and “fellowship” statuses on clearing specific examinations. Pursue SOA certification if you want to go into retirement benefits, finance, investments, health insurance and life insurance. Pursue CAS certification if you want to go into medical malpractice, automobile insurance, property and casualty and workers’ compensation insurance.

There are five exams in SOA and seven exams in CAS. Clearing SOA and CAS will give associate certification, ASA and ACAS respectively. Getting the ASA or ACAS certification takes about four to six years. Each exam takes months of preparation. Another two to three years are involved in moving from “associate” to “fellowship” status. Group and health benefits, investments, retirement benefits, life and annuities and enterprise risk management are SOA fellowship options; specific options don’t exist for CAS.

SOA Certification

SOA Certification Process

CAS Certification

CAS Certification Process

To remain associated with either SOA or CAS, you have to keep attending their professional seminars, both online and offline. It is mandatory and employers to make provisions for this. You need to be analytical skills, problem solving skills, math skills, computer skills, interpersonal skills and communication skills to get actuarial certifications. You need to be dedicated, committed and hardworking to become a certified actuary. You need to invest almost a decade to go from being a “trainee” to a “fellow”.


If you want to enter a specific financial career involving risk analysis and excellent future growth potentials, take up actuary as a career.

10 Highly Effective Study Habits

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Students grapple with many issues in their lives, and because of all of the competing things for your attention, it’s hard to concentrate on studying. And yet if you’re in school, you have to do at least a little studying in order to progress from year to year. The key to effective studying isn’t cramming or studying longer, but studying smarter. You can begin studying smarter with these ten proven and effective study habits.

1. How you approach studying matters

Too many people look at studying as a necessary task, not an enjoyment or opportunity to learn. That’s fine, but researchers have found that how you approach something matters almost as much as what you do. Being in the right mindset is important in order to study smarter.

Sometimes you can’t “force” yourself to be in the right mindset, and it is during such times you should simply avoid studying. If you’re distracted by a relationship issue, an upcoming game, or finishing an important project, then studying is just going to be an exercise in frustration. Come back to it when you’re not focused (or obsessed!) by something else going on in your life.

Way to help improve your study mindset:

  • Aim to think positively when you study, and remind yourself of your skills and abilities.
  • Avoid catastrophic thinking. Instead of thinking, “I’m a mess, I’ll never have enough time to study for this exam,” look at it like, “I may be a little late to study as much as I’d like, but since I’m doing it now, I’ll get most of it done.”
  • Avoid absolute thinking. Instead of thinking “I always mess things up,” the more objective view is, “I didn’t do so well that time, what can I do to improve?”
  • Avoid comparing yourself with others, because you usually just end up feeling bad about yourself.

2. Where you study is important

A lot of people make the mistake of studying in a place that really isn’t conducive to concentrating. A place with a lot of distractions makes for a poor study area. If you try and study in your dorm room, for instance, you may find the computer, TV, or a roommate more interesting than the reading material you’re trying to digest.

The library, a nook in a student lounge or study hall, or a quiet coffee house are good places to check out. Make sure to choose the quiet areas in these places, not the loud, central gathering areas. Investigate multiple places on-campus and off-campus, don’t just pick the first one your find as “good enough” for your needs and habits. Finding an ideal study place is important, because it’s one you can reliably count on for the next few years.

3. Bring everything you need, nothing you don’t

Unfortunately, when you find an ideal place to study, sometimes people bring things they don’t need. For instance, while it may seem ideal to type notes into a computer to refer back to later, computers are a powerful distraction for many people because they can do so many different things. Playing games, going online, IM’ing, surfing the Web, and answering emails are all wonderful distractions that have nothing to do with studying. So ask yourself whether you really need a computer to take notes, or whether you can make do with the old-fashioned paper and pen or pencil.

Don’t forget the things you need to study for the class, exam or paper you’re focusing on for the study session. Nothing is more time-consuming and wasteful than having to run back and forth regularly because you forget an important book, paper, or some other resource you need to be successful. If you study best with your favorite music playing, make sure your iPod is with you.

4. Outline and rewrite your notes

Most people find that keeping to a standard outline format helps them boil information down to its most basic components. People find that connecting similar concepts together makes it easier to remember when the exam comes around. The important thing to remember in writing outlines is that an outline only words as a learning tool when it is in your own words and structure. Every person is unique in how they put similar information together (called “chunking” by cognitive psychologists). So while you’re welcomed to copy other people’s notes or outlines, make sure you translate those notes and outlines into your own words and concepts. Failing to do this is what often causes many students to stumble in remembering important items.

It may also be helpful to use as many senses as possible when studying, because information is retained more readily in people when other senses are involved. That’s why writing notes works in the first place – it puts information into words and terms you understand. Mouthing the words out loud while you copy the notes before an important exam can be one method for involving yet another sense.

5. Use memory games (mnemonic devices)

Memory games, or mnemonic devices, are methods for remembering pieces of information using a simple association of common words. Most often people string together words to form a nonsense sentence that is easy to remember. The first letter of each word can then be used to stand for something else – the piece of information you’re trying to remember. The most common mnemonic device example is “Every Good Boy Deserves Fun.” Putting the first letters of every word together – EGBDF – gives a music student the five notes for treble clef.

The key to such memory devices is the new phrase or sentence you come up with has to be more memorable and easier to remember than the terms or information you’re trying to learn. These don’t work for everyone, so if they don’t work for you, don’t use them.

Mnemonic devices are helpful because you use more of your brain to remember visual and active images than you do to remember just a list of items. Using more of your brain means better memory.

6. Practice by yourself or with friends

The old age adage, practice makes perfect, is true. You can practice by yourself by testing yourself with either practice exams, past quizzes, or flash cards (depending what kind of course it is and what’s available). If a practice exam isn’t available, you can make one up for yourself and your classmates (or find someone who will). If a practice or old exam from a course is available, use it as a guide – do not study to the practice or old exam! (Too many students treat such exams as the real exams, only to be disappointed when the real exam has none of the same questions). Such exams help you understand the breadth of content and types of questions to expect, not the actual material to study for.

Some people enjoy reviewing their materials with a group of friends or classmates. Such groups work best when they’re kept small (4 or 5 others), with people of similar academic aptitude, and with people taking the same class. Different formats work for different groups. Some groups like to work through chapters together, quizzing one another as they go through it. Others like to compare class notes, and review materials that way, ensuring they haven’t missed any critical points. Such study groups can be helpful for many students, but not all.

7. Make a schedule you can stick to

Too many people treat studying as the thing to do when you get around to it or have some spare time. But if you schedule study time just as your class time is scheduled, you’ll find it becomes much less of a hassle in the long run. Instead of last-minute cramming sessions, you’ll be better prepared because you haven’t put off all the studying into one 12-hour marathon. Spending 30 or 60 minutes every day you have a class studying for that class before or after is a lot easier and will allow you to actually learn more of the material.

You should study regularly throughout the semester for as many classes as you can. Some people study every day, others put it off to once or twice a week. The frequency isn’t as important as actually studying on a regular basis. Even if you just crack open a book once a week for a class, it’s better than waiting until the first exam in a massive cram session.

Scheduling is even more important if you’re going to be a part of a study group. If only half of your members are committed to a study group for every meeting, then you need to find other study group members who are as committed as you are.

8. Take breaks (and rewards!)

Because so many people view studying as a chore or task, it’s human nature to avoid it. If, however, you find rewards to help reinforce what you’re doing, you may be pleasantly surprised by the change you may find in your attitude over time.

Rewards start by chunking study time into manageable components. Studying for 4 hours at a time with no breaks is not realistic or fun for most people. Studying for 1 hour, and then taking a 5 minute break and grabbing a snack is usually more sustainable and enjoyable. Divide study time into segments that make sense and work for you. If you have to digest a whole textbook chapter, find sections in the chapter and commit to reading and taking notes on one section at a time. Maybe you only do one section in a sitting, maybe you do two. Find the limits that seem to work for you.

If you succeed in your goals (such as doing two sections of a chapter in one sitting), give yourself a real reward. Perhaps it’s saying, “I’ll treat myself to some good dessert tonight at dinner,” or “I can buy a new tune online,” or “I can spend an extra 30 minutes gaming for every 2 sections of a book chapter I read.” The point is to find a reward that is small but real, and to stick to it. Some may view this as absurd, since you’re setting limits you can easily ignore. But by setting these limits on your behavior, you’re actually teaching yourself discipline, which will be a handy skill to have throughout life.

9. Keep healthy and balanced

It’s hard to live a balanced life while in school, I know. But the more balance you seek out in your life, the easier every component in your life becomes. If you spend all of your time focusing on a relationship or a game, you can see how easy it is to be out of balance. When you’re out of balance, the things you’re not focusing on – such as studying – become that much harder. Don’t spend all of your time studying – have friends, keep in touch with your family, and find interests outside of school that you can pursue and enjoy.

Finding balance isn’t really something that can be taught, it’s something that comes with experience and simply living. But you can work to try and keep your health and body balanced, by doing what you already know – exercise regularly and eat right. There are no shortcuts to health. Vitamins and herbs might help you in the short-term, but they’re not substitute for real, regular meals and a dose of exercise every now and again (walking to class is a start, but only if you’re spending an hour or two a day doing it).

Look at vitamins and herbs as they are intended – as supplements to your regular, healthy diet. Common herbs – such as ginkgo, ginseng, and gotu kola – may help you enhance mental abilities, including concentration, aptitude, behavior, alertness and even intelligence. But they may not, either, and you shouldn’t rely on them instead of studying regularly.

10. Know what the expectations are for the class

Different professors and teachers have different expectations from their students. While taking good notes and listening in class (and attending as many of the classes as you can) are good starts, you can do one better by spending some time with the instructor or professor’s assistant. Talking to the instructor early on – especially if you foresee a difficult course ahead – will help you understand the course requirements and the professor’s expectations. Maybe most students in the class are expected to get a “C” because the material is so difficult; knowing that ahead of time helps set your expectations, too.

Pay attention in class. If the instructor writes something on the whiteboard or displays it on the screen, it’s important. But if they say something, that’s important too. Copy these things down as they’re presented, but don’t zone out completely from what the instructor is also saying. Some students focus on the written materials without regard for what the instructor is saying. If you write down only one aspect of the professor’s instructions (e.g., just what they write down), you’re probably missing about half the class.

If you get a particularly bad grade on a paper or exam, talk to the instructor. Try and understand where things went wrong, and what you can do in the future to help reduce it from happening again.

Don’t forget to learn!

Studying isn’t just about passing an exam, as most students look at it as. Studying is an effort to actually learn things, some of which you might actually care about. So while you’ll have to take your share of classes that have little or nothing to do with your interests, you should still look for interesting things to take away from every experience.

By the time you’ll realize what a great opportunity school is, you’ll be well into the middle of your life with a lot of responsibilities – children, mortgages, career pressures, etc. Then most people have neither the time nor energy to go back to school. So take the time to learn some stuff now, because you’ll appreciate the opportunity later on.

Electrical Engineering – Career, Scope and Growth Prospects

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Students after 12th Class aims to join one of the reputed engineering institutes to get a degree. Out of the many engineering branches available, Electrical Engineering is the most sought after choice students opt for. It is due to a variety of reasons why many students prefer electrical engineering.


Electrical Engineering is one of the fastest growing fields that involves study and application of electricity and electronics. It is the most interesting branch of engineering because it involves study of computer, electrical and electronics and communication. Electrical engineering deals with generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.


In order to be an electrical engineer, aspirants need to clear IIT JEE (previously known as AIEEE). After clearing the entrance test, candidates can apply for the following courses.

  • B.E / B. Tech in Electrical & Electronics Engineering
  • B. Tech in Elements of Electrical Engineering
  •  B.E in Electrical Department
  •  B. Tech in Electrical Engineering
  • B. Tech in Electronics & Instrumentation
  • M.Tech in Fibre Optics and Light wave Engineering
  •  M.Tech in Digital Systems & Comp. Electronics
  • M.E/M.Tech in Electrical Engineering
  • Ph. D in Electrical Engineering
  • Diploma in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
  • Diploma in House Electrician.


    In order to be appointed as an electrical engineer, a candidate must have a B.E/B. Tech degree in Electrical Engineering. A candidate with master’s degree in Electrical Engineering holds the highest designation and earns relatively better salary package.

    Electrical Engineers can be appointed as Design Engineer, Quality Control Engineer, Test Engineer, Reliability Engineer, Process and Manufacturing Engineer etc.


    Electrical Engineers are much in demand in India. In the recent years, from house to companies every where there is a necessity of electricity to function, offering numerous opportunities to electrical engineers.

    These engineers can work in atomic power plants, hydel or thermal power plants. Job opportunities are ample in both private and public sector like railways, civil aviation, electricity board and utility companies, electrical design and consultancy firms and all types of manufacturing industries.

    After getting a degree in electrical engineering, they can also go into teaching field or join a research lab. Teaching career is also rewarding, with job in top engineering colleges of India offers attractive remuneration packages.

    Companies like ABB, Bajaj International Private Ltd, Crompton Greaves Limited, Siemens Ltd, Reliance Power Ltd, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), Coal India Limited (CIL), Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL), Centre for Electronics Design and Technology and Wipro Lighting are the biggest employers hiring Electrical Engineers.


    Today, electrical engineers are much in demand due to the rising demand for electrical energy, the growth of audio and visual communication systems and automation in the industry.

    An Electrical Engineer is expected to undertake the following duties:

    • Design and develop more efficient electrical machinery
    • Control Equipment for electricity generation
    • Guide and organize manufacturing, construction, installation, maintenance, support, documentation and testing to assure conformation with specifications, codes and customer requisites.
    • Transmission and distribution of electrical energy and telecommunication.

    The job profile may differ from company to company. However, in general an electrical engineer is expected to do the above tasks.


    The salary range of electrical engineers differs as per industry, location and their qualifications. An electrical engineer earns an average salary of INR 426, 384 per annum. The average salary of a design engineer is INR 453, 235 per year. The salary increases with your experience in the industry.

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Horticulture Career Scope, Eligibility and Job Prospects

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One of the options that you have after completing you Class XII is pursuing B.Sc. in Horticulture. It is the science which deals with science of cultivation of flowers, vegetable, fruits, herbs, shrubs, bushes, ornamental trees and landscaping for gardens green houses, gardens, orchards and plantations and also floriculture or cultivation of flowers. There are further some subjects that are studied under the course which deals; such as vegetable science, production harvesting, landscape architecture, plantation crops, floriculture.

Horticulture Course Eligibility

To pursue a Bachelor’s course in Horticulture Sciences, one needs to be a Class XII pass out with the combination of physics, chemistry and mathematics/ biology/ agriculture. One can apply for either a bachelor’s in Horticulture or Agricultural Science.

In order to pursue a Master’s degree, one must complete his Undergraduate in 60 per cent plus marks. Also the graduation should be in the in same or related streams. For instance, in order to get admission to MA in Pomology; Floriculture and Landscaping; or Vegetable Crops a B.Sc degree in Agriculture or Horticulture is required.

Horticulture Career Prospects

A lot of students choose the Horticulture studies in India. Since agriculture deals with plant breeding which is late on consumed by human beings so it has a lot of scope in terms of career opportunities. Thanks to modernization it is no longer a study of land owners or of the needy. The course with developments has brought with itself the wide variety of job opportunists in the public andprivate enterprises.

Although both the private and public sectors offer a good remuneration to its employees but the private sector is better rewarding. A person at the top of his game can be paid lucratively as the industry is growing rapidly and there is great need of good quality plants, flowers, fruits. Also the advent of technology has brought with itself the need for more sophisticated products which can be less perishable than their counter parts. Also the export industry is helping build up the amount of available jobs.

Horticulturists and Landscapers are employed in resorts, hotels, and in health farms in order to decorate their settings. Postgraduate students can work as supervisors, researcher, distributors, and engineer; or they can also start his/her own business.

Career Options and Oppurtunities in Horticulture

There are opportunities in:

  • Corporations: Agriculturists from this sector can seek employment in Warehousing
    Corporation and Food Corporation, State Farm Corporation and National Seed Corporation.
  • Estates and tea gardens: There are ample of opportunities in estates and tea gardens which also offer great remuneration.
  • Agricultural Engineering: This sector deals with conservation of soil and water, power, agricultural machines, and farm structures. Engineering graduates can venture into this field.
  • Agriculture Management: Students possessing knowledge of management and agriculture are the need of this industry and can venture into estates and tea gardens.
  • Agro-industry Sector: This sector revolves around dairy processing, meat packaging, grain processing, fats and oils, production, fibers, pesticides and other such products. There is scope for great research in this field and also requires sales and promotion, technologists, scientists, as well as in production
  • Services Sector: this field revolves around fertilizers, seeds and chemicals at reasonable price and also to provide quality food products.
  • Self employment: Like most other industries graduates can start his/her own business such as agriculture product shops, agri-base industry, etc.

One can also venture into farming, conservation, seri-culture, agri-business, research, agricultural education, agricultural journalism and many more.

Colleges/ Universities for Horticulture

  • Kerala Agricultural University
  • University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
  • Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth
  • University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwar
  • Annamalai University
  • Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Allahabad
  • Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Ananthapur
  • Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatre
  • Calcutta University, Kolkata
  • Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University

Interested in investment banking?

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The lowdown
If you are interested in making money out of money, then you should seriously consider making a career out of investment banking. In other words, investment banking is essentially about matching the expectations of people who have the capital with people who need the capital. This can be structured at various stages of the life cycle of a venture starting from the ideating stage to the listing at stock markets. An investment banker advises clients on various options such as mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures etc. to optimise valuation. Since the investment rate in the economy has been a bit sluggish over the last one year due to concerns about political economy, the investment banking sector has reflected the same pace in its growth. However, this is also the time when a lot of work is being done in deal development that would translate to a healthy pipeline in the ensuing years. Investment banking has a huge prospect for growth in an emerging economy like India due to the presence of vast untapped sectors, high entrepreneurial energy and innovation possibilities for structuring win/win solutions

The day begins in the morning, around 8 and usually there are no fixed timings. On most days, it is a 12 to 14 hour work day spent doing research, analytics, reading, meetings, presentations, networking, team building etc. It also involves around 10 working days of travel in a month. A typical day in the life of an investment banking professional:
8am: Day begins in office
9am: Significant time spent on con-calls/skype calls across time zones
Noon: Brief the team members, prepare a report
8pm: Leave for home

The payoff
On an average, a fresher in this domain can expect a package of Rs 20 lakh per annum and there is no upper limit on pay scale as the same is directly proportionate to the value contribution of the professional to the size and value of the deals

* High research/analytical frame of mind
* Top of the line communication
* Widely read and informed and thinking out of the box – a natural innovator
* Should have ability to handle difficult situations and offer timely troubleshooting
* Should have a flair for analysing figures and forecast sales and budget
* Should have sound technical knowledge
* Should have good command over the English language

Getting there
One can follow this sector from any stream – science, commerce or arts. However, it is important to have competency in maths, economics and business studies on the path. A bachelor’s degree in business administration is a usual pre-requisite. You can follow it up with an MBA or choose to get some work experience. Either ways, you will learn a lot

Institutes and URLs
* Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi
* Shaheed Sukhdev College of Business Studies, Delhi University
* Guru Gobind Singh College of Commerce, Delhi University
* Faculty of Management Studies, Delhi University
* Faculty of Management Studies, Delhi University
* Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai
* IXLRI, School of Business and Human Resources, Jharkhand
* Institute of Management and Technology, Ghaziabad
* Indian Institutes of Management, Multiple Locations

Pros and cons
* Extremely challenging and intellectually stimulating job
* Money is good
* The profession can open the Path to  entrepreneurship
* Helps in networking
* High-pressure job
* Involves long hours
* Excessive competition

In an emerging economy like India, prospects for investment bankers are very bright. Vast potential in entrepreneurial activity and various innovation possibilities make it attractive for those who want to join the industry Anoop Sharma, former Investment Banker (HSBC) based in Delhi


Plastic Surgeon Education Requirements and Career Information

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Essential Information

Plastic surgeons are medical doctors who reconstruct and improve the physical appearances of patients by performing cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. Plastic surgeons must complete extensive graduate work, including medical school, residencies and possibly fellowships. After completing their residencies, plastic surgeons must become licensed to practice.

Required Education Doctor of Medicine
Other Requirements Physician licensure, residency and fellowship, board certification
Projected Job Growth 18% from 2012-2022 for all physicians and surgeons*

Plastic Surgeon Educational Requirements

Most prospective plastic surgeons complete undergraduate degrees prior to attending medical school. Although bachelor’s degrees in any major are acceptable, premedical students must complete certain prerequisite courses, including chemistry, biology and physics. The first two years of medical school, referred to as the preclinical years, teach students the fundamentals of body systems, diseases and patient care. The final two years are the clinical years and place students in healthcare facilities to perform clinical rotations. Surgery is a required rotation and some schools offer clerkships in plastic surgery.

After graduating from medical school, individuals typically have two options when selecting residency programs. Some schools offer combined general and plastic surgery programs that last around six years, while others offer 2- or 3-year plastic surgery residencies independently and require individuals to first complete at least three years in general surgery residencies. Residency programs incorporate training in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery while allowing residents greater independence than that of medical students.

Plastic surgeons who wish to work in subspecialties, such as hand or head and neck surgery, will then need to undergo fellowships. These programs typically last one year and provide more narrowly focused training with increased responsibility in treatment program management. Fellows also have opportunities to conduct research.

Licensing Requirements

All physicians, including plastic surgeons, must be licensed to practice. While state regulations vary, a universal requirement is successfully passing the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) or Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Exam (COMLEX), which test individuals on their knowledge of diseases and patient care. Plastic surgeons who seek optional board certification must pass an exam administered by the American Board of Plastic Surgery or the American Osteopathic Board of Surgery after completing their residencies.

Career Information

Plastic surgeons may perform either cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. Cosmetic plastic surgery involves procedures that serve only to change an individual’s appearance. Such procedures may include tummy tucks, hair restoration and breast augmentation. Reconstructive plastic surgeons work with abnormal conditions caused by birth defects or accidents, such as a cleft palates and scars.

Similar to other surgeons, plastic surgeons consult with patients and family members to explain procedures prior to operating. Many surgeons work more than 40 hours a week and may be called in on short notice for emergencies. During surgical procedures, they work within teams with other medical professionals, including surgical assistants and nurses.

Careers in Copy Writing

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Copywriting means writing content for newspapers, radio, and television and on-road media for marketing and advertising purposes. Copywriting is not restricted to writing factually correct content, but also drafting the promotional material in a very creative and effective manner. In order to persuade the consumers to buy the products of their clients, advertising firms are always in need of quality copywriters, who are capable of producing the most effective content for promotions and marketing. To become a good and effective copywriter, one should follow certain rules and principles, including writing catchy headlines and promo lines, writing in a short and crisp manner, and writing with strong visualization skills. On the whole, all the work is done strategically in copywriting. Many educational institutes in India conduct courses in copywriting. After pursuing courses related to copy writing, one can directly enter the professional world and work as a copywriter for any advertising firm or marketing department of an organization.

Course Details
Due to stiff competition in the advertising industry, many educational institutes have started offering courses related to this field, generally at the postgraduate and postgraduate diploma levels, to produce proficient copywriters. One can also get enrolled into certificate and short-term courses in copywriting. Fluency in grammar and vocabulary of the language are the essentials while opting for copywriting. In addition to this, he/she should have good sense of creativity and wit. Any graduate in any stream, from a recognized university, is eligible for choosing copywriting as his/her career.

Career Prospects
The scope of copywriting is vast. Advertising agencies are always on a hunt for efficient copywriters who can convey their messages (about the product or service) in the most creative and effective manner. Apart from ad agencies, copywriters are also required for newspapers and by business firms. After starting off as a junior copywriter, one can become a senior copywriter in any reputed organization.

Top Colleges Offering UG/PG/Other Courses
Many educational institutes in India offer courses in copywriting, due to its mere popularity. Among the top institutes conducting programs in copywriting, some are: Institute of Copywriting, New Delhi; Centre for Research in Art of Film & Television (CRAFT), New Delhi; Pranah Institute of Advertising Copywriting, New Delhi; and Atlantis IMC, Mumbai.

A junior copywriter can earn around Rs. 7000 to Rs. 10,000 per month. Many leading advertising agencies pay anywhere between Rs. 15,000 and Rs. 25,000 a month to senior copywriters.

Career in Commerce after 12th-Job Opportunities in Commerce

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With the positive changing scenario around the world in the realm of economic activity, selecting Commerce as a career option is one of the best to grab. Commerce students get familiar with knowledge of business, trade, market fluctuation, basics of economics, fiscal policies, industrial policies, share market, stock markets, etc.  Considering the burgeoning activity of market, talented commerce graduate are needed to make a balance in the demand and supply.

Commerce Course Details

  • After passing the 12th standard from Commerce stream from recognised board, one may enroll for Bachelor of Commerce (B. Com) degree. Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com) is a full time three year degree course.
  • One can also pursue Postgraduate course (M. Com) in Commerce. For this, one has to successfully passed Bachelor of Commerce (B. Com) degree from a recognised University.
  • During their course, the students have to study the following branches of Commerce such as Finance, Business Administration, Accountancy, E-Commerce, Economics and Marketing.

Courses Available after 12th Commerce

Job Oriented Career Options in Commerce

Gone are the days when Bachelor in Commerce course offers two major options-B.Com with Accountancy and B.Com with Management. However, with the requirements of the industry, some specialised disciplines are available with Commerce. Students now can specialise in Bachelor in Accountancy and Finance (BAF), Bachelor in Banking and Insurance (BBI) and Bachelor in Financial Markets (BFM). One can also get a good placement after successfully completing the B.Com course and Advanced Diploma in Tourism and Travel Management. After completing these courses, the graduates often have the opportunity of campus placements where salary between 3.00 to 9.00 lakh are offered.

MA Degree in Commerce

Post Graduate in Commerce placed you at a better advantageous position than B.Com as far as job market is concerned. MA in Commerce provides you wide ranges of opportunities in the field  such as teaching, civil service exam, higher education, banking sector, broking, research, actuarial sciences, financial institutions, and in the domain of economics. One can also pursue Ph.D. after completing MA in Commerce for the purpose of higher education and teaching profession. Better options are also opened at Cost Accountants, Company Secretary and Chartered Accountant.

Career Prospects in Commerce

The career prospects in commerce and its interdisciplinary domains such as Banking, Chartered Accountancy, Company Secretary, Economics, Stock Broking, Cost Work and Accountancy, and Agricultural Economics are extremely bright. B.Com along with Chartered Accountancy or MBA will pay you to a larger extent. These degrees will able to pay you to have a good position in public and private organisations. If you are ambitious and hardworking, you may also make your niche in the field if financial engineering. Choosing CA after 12th is interesting and challenging options. It shouldn’t club with B.Com or other courses. After graduation in commerce, one can choose M.Com, Business Economics, Finance Control, MA Economics MA operational and Research Statistics at Postgraduate level.

Career Options in Commerce

  • Accountant
  • Accountant Executive
  • Chartered Accountant
  • Company secretary
  • Cost Accountant
  • Finance Analyst
  • Finance Planner
  • Finance Manager
  • Finance Controller
  • Finance Consultant
  • Investment Analyst
  • Stock Broker
  • Portfolio Manager
  • Tax Auditor
  • Tax Consultant
  • Auditor
  • Statistician
  • Economist

Job Opportunity in Commerce

More or less, all the organisations have financial managers, treasurers, controller, credit manager, and other financial staff who made their financial reports for tax and other requirements. The employment opportunities in commerce fields are lucrative. The door of both private and public organisation is open for commerce graduates. They may work in this organisation as Manager, Auditors, Specialist, Consultant, Management Executive, Account Executive, Junior Accountant, CA, Book Keeper, Entrepreneur etc.  The importance of commerce graduates further increases after sea changes in various parameters of Indian Economy like bank deposits, mutual funds, stock markets, venture capital, insurance schemes and portfolio management. Teaching may also be one of the options after pursuing higher studies.

Main Employers

  • Public Organisations
  • Big Business houses/firms
  • Small Business houses,firms
  • Finance and Leasing
  • Banks
  • MNCs
  • TNCs
  • BPOs
  • KPOs
  • Software industry, etc.

Salary in Commerce Field

To a larger extent, the remuneration in the field of commerce depends upon area of specialisation and your institutions. At the entry level, Salary starts from 15, 000-20, 000. Since, the significance of commerce has increased manifolds, post Liberalization, Privatisation and Globalization (LPG) era, the experience and knowledgeable candidates are getting handsome salary.

Colleges offers Commerce Courses

There are many colleges and Institutes, which are offering commerce degrees. Here given the list of some of the top 10 Commerce Institutions in India.

  1. Shri Ram College of Commerce (SRCC), Delhi
  2. Loyola College, Chennai
  3. St. Xavier’s College, Kolkata
  4. Presidency College, Chennai
  5. Symbiosis Society’s College of Arts & Commerce, Pune
  6. St. Joseph’s College, Bangalore
  7. Narsee Monjee College of Commerce & Economics, Mumbai
  8. BM College of Commerce, Pune
  9. St. Xavier’s Mumbai
  10. College of Commerce, Patna

Career in Automobile Engineering – options and opportunities

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RE: Career in Automobile Engineering – options and opportunities Rohit Sharma (11-29-2011)

Automobile engineering is also called vehicle engineering, one of the most challenging fields in engineering but at the same time it has more growth opportunity worldwide. Automobile engineering has another name which is termed as automotive engineering which deals with designing, manufacturing, developing, testing and maintenance of the automobiles. Automobile Engineers are classified into three streams namely Product or Design Engineering, Development Engineering and last but not the least Manufacturing Engineering. It combines different engineering methods such as electrical, safety, software, mechanical and so on to provide a better maintenance and services for your vehicles. This field requires lots of hard work and dedication to learn the profession and to achieve the success. Engineers in this field deals with creation, design, service, and manufacture of different vehicles which works efficiently and produce good result to satisfy the customers.

Performance and growth of industry in India

The growth of automobile engineering is such that, it provides a platform for the engineers to explore new horizons and areas. The growth of automobile engineering is very high and it is on the peak of adding more features to this field. India is on the verge of expansion in this sector and it is considered to be one of the leading manufacturers in development and production of two and three wheelers. This made India to be globally recognized by foreign countries.

Options and Opportunities

Due to growth in automobile sector the job opportunities are also growing. There are opportunities lying in the area of manufacturing, service station, transport companies, defense services. One can go for higher studies to gain more experience and can do M.Tech or PhD to further enhance their knowledge. They can also opt for lectureship or for the post of professor in engineering colleges/universities.

Courses Available

B.E in Automobile Engineering
– B.Tech in Automobile Engineering
– M.Tech in Automobile Engineering
– Post Graduate Diploma in Automobile Maintenance
– Diploma in Automobile Engineering
– Certificate Programme in Automobile Technology

Qualification required

– After passing 10th a candidate can opt for diploma programme in Automobile Engineering and after that they can further pursue their post graduate diploma or even can get an Engineering degree for which a diploma holders need to have 50% marks in aggregate.
– For B.E/B.Tech in Automobile Engineering – 10+2 with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics or Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Biomedical with high percentage of marks
– For M.E/M.Tech – Bachelor’s degree in B.E/B.Tech
– For pursuing Ph.D degree a candidate should hold master’s degree in automobile engineering.

Some good institutes

– Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai
– Oriental Institute of Science and Technology, Bhopal
– Bharath Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai,
– Sastra University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu
– Annamalai University Directorate of Distance Education, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu
– Dayanand Sagar College of Engineering, Banglore

Entrance exams

Selection of candidates for B.E/B.Tech courses is made on the basis of following entrance exams which are conducted both at national and state level:
– Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Exam (IIT JEE)
– All India Engineering Entrance Exam (AIEEE),
– Amrita Engineering Entrance Exam
– Birla Institute of Technology and Science Admission Test (BITSAT)
– BS Abdur Rahman University Engineering Entrance Examination (BSAUEEE)
– Engineering, Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test (EAMCET)
– Karnataka Common Entrance Test (KCET)
– Madhya Pradesh Pre Engineering Test (MPPET)
– SRM Engineering Entrance Examination
– University of Delhi Combined Entrance Examination (CEE)
– Uttar Pradesh State Entrance Examination (UPSEE)

Selection of candidates for M.E/M.Tech courses is through
– Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE)
– Bharath University M.Tech entrance exam
– JNTU M.Tech Entrance Exam
– Noorul Islam University M.Tech Entrance Exam
– Vellore Institute of Technology Engineering Entrance Exam



Dentistry, a lucrative profession, is concerned with all health problems afflicting the mouth, teeth, gums and other hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. Dentistry as a career has many specializations. The prominent clinical categories are Orthodontics (straightening and aligning of teeth and jaws), Periodontics (care of gums and the diseases that might afflict them), Pedodontics (Pediatric dentistry dealing with children), Endodontics (root canal jobs and fillings), Prosthodontics & Maxillofacial Prosthodontics (involves the making of artificial teeth), Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and non clinical categories include Oral Medicine and Radiology, Oral Pathology (deals with the diagnosis of diseases that affect the mouth), Community Dentistry, Forensic Odontology, Dental Material Science etc. Here we discuss in detail about the branch Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is an exciting and challenging specialty of Dentistry that combines dental, medical, and surgical knowledge and skills. Purely a surgical branch, it deals with diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases affecting the mouth, jaws, face and neck. Oral and maxillofacial Surgeons i.e dental specialists who specialise in the field of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, are referred to do simplest surgical procedure of tooth extraction to complex procedures that require extensive surgery. They perform surgeries on the oral (mouth) and maxillofacial (jaws and face) areas in order to improve function, appearance and/or to correct defects, repair injuries, or treat diseases. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons care for patients who experience such conditions as problem of wisdom teeth, facial injury, dental implants and misaligned jaws. They will also do minor cosmetic procedure for patients. These surgeons need a great degree of expertise and medical knowledge to evaluate the general health of the patients who undergo surgery as well as to handle any medical emergency arising during the procedure. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons may work in combination with restorative dentists, orthodontists, prosthodontists or other dental and medical professionals to develop and execute treatment plans.

Educational requirements to become an Oral Maxillofacial Surgeon

To work as a dentist one needs only Bachelor’s degree in Dental Science (BDS). If you want your career to grow, then you have to to be a specialist with a Masters (MDS) degree of 3 years duration. i.e to become an Oral maxillofacial surgeon, you have to go for MDS in Oral Maxillofacial surgery.

Candidates who have passed 10+2 with Physics, Chemistry and Biology, with at least 50% marks are eligible for admission in the Bachelor of Dental Science (BDS) course. BDS admission is based on entrance test. Those who have completed the BDS should be registered to practice dentistry by the Dental Council of India. Further to get specialised you have to opt for Masters in Dental Science (MDS). Selection is based on the marks of BDS marks and the score you get in the national, state or deemed university entrance tests.

Personal skill needed for an Oral Maxillofacial Surgeon

The foremost attribute required for a good dentist is patience, stamina to work hard for long periods, good health, concentration, manual dexterity and accuracy. Besides these they must have a keen eye for detail, ability to memorise and recall scientific facts, comprehensive medical understanding, cool temperament and strong interpersonal skills. The best dentists are skillful communicators and their analytical and logical reasoning skill should be above average. You should be able to put people at their ease, gain their confidence and deal sympathetically with their problems and fears.


The scope of the specialty is large and includes the surgical and non-surgical management of conditions of the hard and soft tissues of the face, jaws and neck. There is a vast career opportunity for an Oral maxillofacial surgeon. The majority of job opportunities for a postgraduate in this field are available in research institutes, colleges, universities and hospitals.

Those interested in teaching can acquire teaching jobs in any of the top Dental Colleges. They are eligible to hold positions as professors or even HOD and even get promoted as Dean. Oral Maxillofacial surgeon can get employment in Oral maxillofacial department of reputed hospitals, chances are there in both private and government hospitals. Trained private practitioners can setup their own dental clinic. Opportunities also lie in the area of forensic science. They also can also get job in Armed forces and railways.

Apart from a job in a hospital or setting up your clinic, you could also work in the Research and Advisory functions of a pharmaceutical and other company producing oral care products and medicines like toothpaste, mouth wash, gum care products, etc.


The salary of an Oral maxillofacial surgeon is based on factors- such as skill and work experience, education level, type of employment and the geographical area. A fresher in the field can earn Rs. 9,000 upwards. Dental surgeons can earn good money through their own practice. The consultation charges could be Rs.500 upwards. They can even charge depending upon the nature of dental problem the patient is undergoing. Even for simple case of a wisdom teeth, Oral maxillofacial surgeon charge Rs. 2000 and above. A well established dentist can make around Rs. 60,000 – 1,00,000 or more per month.