University Grants Commission (India)

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The University Grants Commission (UGC) of India is a statutory body set up by the Indian Union government in accordance to the UGC Act 1956[1] under Ministry of Human Resource Development, and is charged with coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of higher education. It provides recognition to universities in India, and disburses funds to such recognised universitiesand colleges. Prof. Ved Prakash is the incumbent Chairman of UGC, India.[2] Its headquarters is in New Delhi, and six regional centres in Pune, Bhopal, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Guwahati and Bangalore


The UGC was first formed in 1945 to oversee the work of the three Central Universities of Aligarh, Banaras and Delhi. Its responsibility was extended in 1947 to cover all Indian universities.[4]

In August 1949 a recommendation was made to reconstitute the UGC along similar lines to the University Grants Committee of the United kingdom. This recommendation was made by the University Education Commission of 1948-1949 which was set up under the chairmanship of S. Radhakrishnan to “to report on Indian university education and suggest improvements and extensions”.[5][6] In 1952 the government decided that all grants to universities and higher learning institutions should be handled by the UGC. Subsequently an inauguration was held on 28 December 1953 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the Minister of Education, Natural Resources and Scientific Research.

In November 1956 the UGC became a statutory body upon the passing of the “University Grants Commission Act, 1956” by theIndian Parliament.[1]

In 1994 and 1995 the UGC decentralised its operations by setting up six regional centres at Pune, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Bhopal, Guwahati and Bangalore.[7] The head office of the UGC is located at Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg in New Delhi, with two additional bureaus operating from 35, Feroze Shah Road and the South Campus of University of Delhi as well.[8]

Professional councils

UGC, along with CSIR currently conducts NET for appointments of teachers in colleges and universities.[9] It has made NET qualification mandatory for teaching at Graduation level and at Post Graduation level since July 2009. However, those with Ph.D are given five percent relaxation.

Accreditation for higher learning over Universities under the aegis of University Grants Commission is overseen by following fifteen autonomous statutory institutions :[10][11]


In 1976, the Union Minister of Education made open the government of India’s plans to close down UGC and the related body All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), in favour of a higher regulatory body with more sweeping powers.[12] This goal, proposed by the Higher Education and Research (HE&R) Bill, 2011, intends to replace the UGC with a “National Commission for Higher Education & Research (NCHER)” “for determination, coordination, maintenance and continued enhancement of standards of higher education and research”.[13] The bill proposes absorbing the UGC and other academic agencies into this new organisation. Those agencies involved in medicine and law would be exempt from this merger “to set minimum standards for medical and legal education leading to professional practice”.[14] The bill has received opposition from the local governments of the Indian states of Bihar, Kerala, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal, but has received general support.[13] UGC has directed ten institutions to immediately shut down their off-campus centres.[15] In December 2015 the Indian government set a National Institutional of Ranking Framework under UGC which will rank all educational institutes by April 2016.[16] UGC has suggested to all Universities in India to set up an Online Admission System from the academic session commencing in 2016


Source : wikipedia


Sports Management Spans from Head Coaches to PR Executives

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Sports management is a broad field with several career options. Learn all about them

Sports management is about much more than “show me the money!”

While talent recruiters and agents are vital figures in the industry, the field is populated with players harnessing unique skills, who use them in various ways to support the industry’s success. Talent scouts and managers are the exciting public face of sports management.

Behind the scenes, facilities managers, public relations executives, broadcasters, nutritionists and trainers are just a few of the sports industry’s movers and shakers.

What education or certification will I need to work in sports management?

Consider an associate’s degree first base in your quest to work in sports management. Once you’ve rounded it, you can start to focus on a particular field of study while earning your bachelor’s. If your school doesn’t offer a specialization in sports management, many typical degree programs will prove useful, including management, marketing, business administration, accounting and health.

Because competition for jobs in the sports industry is fierce, earning a master’s degree will give you a significant advantage in embarking on your dream career. This will take between one and two years to complete. There are a few options to choose from:

  • Master of Business Administration: This standard business master’s shows a commitment to excellence and your ongoing pursuit of knowledge and mastery of the field. You’ll want to concentrate in finance, marketing or sports management, if available.
  • Master of Science in Sports Management: This degree prepares for a career in all levels of management, including recreational, juvenile, interscholastic, amateur, collegiate and professional.
  • Master of Science in Sports Medicine: This degree focuses on health care issues for athletes, including prevention, assessment, management and rehabilitation of injuries.

When selecting your school and program, check to see whether they’ve been approved by the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) and the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE). Once you’ve earned your degree, you can become a member of these associations to network and show your commitment to the field.

Learn more about sports management curriculum on What You’ll Study.

What does a sports manager do?

The task of a sports manager depends on the subfield that they specialize in. Managing people in the college or professional sports arenas may be the first thing that comes to mind. Other management areas include in office systems, marketing, events and facilities. Opportunities also exist in sports economics, finance and information.

Sports management professionals can also be found in business or medicine. A degree in sports medicine might see you teaching college football players how to stay healthy and keep fit by eating the right kinds of foods, or helping a tennis player deal with the psychological ramifications of stress and competition that come with being a professional athlete.

What career paths can I take in sports management?

Entry level opportunities in facilities and on sports teams are available to graduates with a bachelor degree, although you’ll want to position yourself in a community with multiple thriving sports scenes. Competition is so great for jobs in this exciting field that you’ll likely have many more options if you’re educated at the master’s level.

For instance, earning your Master of Science in Sports Management may open up job titles such as sports administrator, corporate sponsorship director, head coach or general manager. A Master of Business Administration in almost any concentration will prime you for executive-level positions on and off the field. How far you go is up to you.

Some students and professionals choose to continue their education by earning a doctorate degree, which allows an intensive focus on research, and job opportunities at the academic level.

  • A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in sports management includes study of the psychological or sociological aspects of sports.
  • A Doctor of Education (EdD) in sports management generally offers two areas of emphasis: sports medicine or Olympism, which studies the structure originated by the Olympic Games and encourages the balanced development of the body and mind.

Source :

Actuary as a Career: Potential Career Paths

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If you are a mathematical genius, a love of logic, have problem solving skills with business awareness, good in communication and excellent in number crunching, think of a career as an actuary today.

Actuary – A Brief History

The actuarial profession gains a formal presence in 1848 after the Institute of Actuaries is established in London.

In India, the Actuarial Society of India (ASI) is established in 1944 and included in the international governing body of actuaries, the International Actuarial Association (IAA), in 1979. Traditionally, the actuarial profession was limited to the insurance sector but now, it expands to other industries as well.

Who Is an Actuary?

A business professional, an actuary has an innate capability to analyse the risk possibilities of a financial activity and mitigate the involved risks. An actuary is mostly needed in the insurance sector and pension programs where the task is to use financial theories, statistics and mathematics to study uncertain future events.

An actuary is a “part super-hero, part fortune-teller, part trusted advisor”,

To put it succinctly, any business necessitating management of financial risk requires the services of actuaries. Business segments like hospitals, employee benefit departments, investment firms, consulting firms, government departments and large corporations often hire actuaries.

According to the USA Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the actuary segment will see a26% growth between 2012 and 2022, which is much higher than average. As the career scope improves, actuaries will be expected to handle the development, pricing and evaluation of new insurance products, its risks and find ways to mitigate them.

An actuarial professional in USA earns an average annual pay of 93,680 USD (2012 data available from BLS) and the Indian counterpart with 10+ years of experience earns an average annual pay of 980,214 INR. Take a look at some statistics picked up from

Actuary as Career

The screenshot above shows the minimum and maximum salary of an actuarial analyst.

Actuary as Career 2

The second graph shows the gender divide; more men work as an actuary than women; one to four years is the highest years of experienced actuarial analysts employed in an organisation.

Actuarial Employment

The third graph above represents the breakdown of industries hiring the service of actuaries, according to BLS 2012 data. It shows that the professional presence is deeply entrenches within the insurance industry.

The Work Profile of an Actuary

As an actuary, you have to use mathematical equations, statistics and financial theories to determine the risk and uncertainty of involved financial costs. You have to assess risks and help the company to take measures to minimize the risk.

There is a high dependence on computer data modeling software, such as advanced financial modeling and statistics software to crunch data in a short span of time. Such advanced software helps to understand event probability and undertake cost forecasting.

You have to work within a team, which usually comprises of accountants, analysts and underwriters. Accountants help to determine the price of insurance products while analysts help to understand market demand. Underwriters accomplish product formalities.

An actuary has to:

  • collect and collate relevant statistical data for further study and analysis.
  • analyse the events and its risks that can increase the economic costs for the company; for instance, untimely death or a natural disaster will cause an insurance company to pay the insurance amount to the nominee and this pre-mature payment can cause losses to the insurance company.
  • design, test and implement various business strategies like pension plans and insurance investments to maximize profit and minimize losses. The actuary has to create in-depth reports containing charts and tables to explain the business strategies and its benefits.
  • explain the report/s to the shareholders like clients, executives and government officials.

When you gain higher experience, you are given supervisory roles. As an actuarial supervisor, you will be expected to advice the senior management, delegate tasks to your team and testify on proposed laws and regulations in front of the public.

If we talk about the insurance sector specifically, there are four types of actuariesthat you can find there. The four types are briefly explained.

1) Life Insurance Actuaries: The work involves analyzing the life expectancy of a person based on high risk factors like current age, health status and gender. Based on this analysis, insurance programs are developed for individuals and groups.

2) Health Insurance Actuaries: The work involves analyzing the life expectancy of a person solely based on the person’s current medical health, past health records, genetic history, occupation and geographic location. All these factors determine the expected cost of a promised health policy and cost of the organisation for policy adherence towards short-term and long-term medical expenses.

3) Pension and Retirement Actuaries: The profile involves assessing and evaluating the existing pension plans and derives future pension plans, and determines whether the company will possess sufficient funds in future to pay off employee pensions and other retirement benefits. Sometimes, you also need to advice individuals to best utilize their retirement money.

4) Property and Casualty Insurance Actuaries: The work involves analyzing the life expectancy of a person against the potential of injury and/or death due to automobile accidents. Factors like driving history, gender, age and car type factor here. As an actuary, you also have to develop insurance policies to insure people against property losses due to untoward events and natural disasters like fires.

Education, interest, knowledge and experience will help you to choose which type of actuary you want to become. Experienced actuaries also have the option to act as consultants for industries other than the industry sector, provided they have excellent understanding of that industry and its business components.

How to Become an Actuary?

Educationally, the basic requirement is to be a mathematics, statistics, finance or actuarial science graduate.

Actuarial science courses are offered in selected institutions in India. They are listed below. If you find more, let us know and we will update the list.

1.   Haryana Engineering College, Jagadhri, Haryana.
2.   Christ University, Bangalore, Karnataka.
3.   Bishop Herber College, Trichy, Tamil Nadu.
4.   Ernakulam Insurance Institute, Ernakulam, Kerala.
5.   The National Insurance Academy, Pune, Maharashtra.
6.   College Of Insurance, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
7.   Insurance Training Centre, Kolkata, West Bengal.
8.   Directorate of Distance Education, Karikudy, Tamil Nadu.
9.   College Of Vocational Studies, New Delhi.
10.  Tolami Institute Of Management Studies, Adupur, Gujarat.
11.   Kalyani University, Nadia District, West Bengal.
12.  Shri Vile Parle Kelavani Mandals Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
13.  Institute of Actuaries of India, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
14.  D.S Actuarial Education Services, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
15.  Amity School of Insurance and Actuarial Sciences, Noida, Uttar Pradesh.

If you want to study abroad in countries like South Africa, USA, Egypt, Canada, China, England, New Zealand, Australia, United Kingdom and others, here’s the updated list of actuarial sciences schools and colleges.

The graduation degree will let you begin as actuarial career as a “trainee” only. You will be assigned teams comprised of experienced actuaries. As a trainee, you have to spend time working on various departments like underwriting and marketing to understand how actuarial work happens.

To climb the next step and get better career opportunities, you need licenses and certifications. Often, your trainee company will support throughout the certification process by sponsoring study materials and/or covering the examination cost. Bonuses and salary raises are even offered with each certification exam passed.

Actuary License / Certification

The Society of Actuaries (SOA) and the Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) are the two professional societies handling the task of granting “professional status” to trainee actuarial. Both the SOA and CAS grants “associate” and “fellowship” statuses on clearing specific examinations. Pursue SOA certification if you want to go into retirement benefits, finance, investments, health insurance and life insurance. Pursue CAS certification if you want to go into medical malpractice, automobile insurance, property and casualty and workers’ compensation insurance.

There are five exams in SOA and seven exams in CAS. Clearing SOA and CAS will give associate certification, ASA and ACAS respectively. Getting the ASA or ACAS certification takes about four to six years. Each exam takes months of preparation. Another two to three years are involved in moving from “associate” to “fellowship” status. Group and health benefits, investments, retirement benefits, life and annuities and enterprise risk management are SOA fellowship options; specific options don’t exist for CAS.

SOA Certification

SOA Certification Process

CAS Certification

CAS Certification Process

To remain associated with either SOA or CAS, you have to keep attending their professional seminars, both online and offline. It is mandatory and employers to make provisions for this. You need to be analytical skills, problem solving skills, math skills, computer skills, interpersonal skills and communication skills to get actuarial certifications. You need to be dedicated, committed and hardworking to become a certified actuary. You need to invest almost a decade to go from being a “trainee” to a “fellow”.


If you want to enter a specific financial career involving risk analysis and excellent future growth potentials, take up actuary as a career.

10 Highly Effective Study Habits

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Students grapple with many issues in their lives, and because of all of the competing things for your attention, it’s hard to concentrate on studying. And yet if you’re in school, you have to do at least a little studying in order to progress from year to year. The key to effective studying isn’t cramming or studying longer, but studying smarter. You can begin studying smarter with these ten proven and effective study habits.

1. How you approach studying matters

Too many people look at studying as a necessary task, not an enjoyment or opportunity to learn. That’s fine, but researchers have found that how you approach something matters almost as much as what you do. Being in the right mindset is important in order to study smarter.

Sometimes you can’t “force” yourself to be in the right mindset, and it is during such times you should simply avoid studying. If you’re distracted by a relationship issue, an upcoming game, or finishing an important project, then studying is just going to be an exercise in frustration. Come back to it when you’re not focused (or obsessed!) by something else going on in your life.

Way to help improve your study mindset:

  • Aim to think positively when you study, and remind yourself of your skills and abilities.
  • Avoid catastrophic thinking. Instead of thinking, “I’m a mess, I’ll never have enough time to study for this exam,” look at it like, “I may be a little late to study as much as I’d like, but since I’m doing it now, I’ll get most of it done.”
  • Avoid absolute thinking. Instead of thinking “I always mess things up,” the more objective view is, “I didn’t do so well that time, what can I do to improve?”
  • Avoid comparing yourself with others, because you usually just end up feeling bad about yourself.

2. Where you study is important

A lot of people make the mistake of studying in a place that really isn’t conducive to concentrating. A place with a lot of distractions makes for a poor study area. If you try and study in your dorm room, for instance, you may find the computer, TV, or a roommate more interesting than the reading material you’re trying to digest.

The library, a nook in a student lounge or study hall, or a quiet coffee house are good places to check out. Make sure to choose the quiet areas in these places, not the loud, central gathering areas. Investigate multiple places on-campus and off-campus, don’t just pick the first one your find as “good enough” for your needs and habits. Finding an ideal study place is important, because it’s one you can reliably count on for the next few years.

3. Bring everything you need, nothing you don’t

Unfortunately, when you find an ideal place to study, sometimes people bring things they don’t need. For instance, while it may seem ideal to type notes into a computer to refer back to later, computers are a powerful distraction for many people because they can do so many different things. Playing games, going online, IM’ing, surfing the Web, and answering emails are all wonderful distractions that have nothing to do with studying. So ask yourself whether you really need a computer to take notes, or whether you can make do with the old-fashioned paper and pen or pencil.

Don’t forget the things you need to study for the class, exam or paper you’re focusing on for the study session. Nothing is more time-consuming and wasteful than having to run back and forth regularly because you forget an important book, paper, or some other resource you need to be successful. If you study best with your favorite music playing, make sure your iPod is with you.

4. Outline and rewrite your notes

Most people find that keeping to a standard outline format helps them boil information down to its most basic components. People find that connecting similar concepts together makes it easier to remember when the exam comes around. The important thing to remember in writing outlines is that an outline only words as a learning tool when it is in your own words and structure. Every person is unique in how they put similar information together (called “chunking” by cognitive psychologists). So while you’re welcomed to copy other people’s notes or outlines, make sure you translate those notes and outlines into your own words and concepts. Failing to do this is what often causes many students to stumble in remembering important items.

It may also be helpful to use as many senses as possible when studying, because information is retained more readily in people when other senses are involved. That’s why writing notes works in the first place – it puts information into words and terms you understand. Mouthing the words out loud while you copy the notes before an important exam can be one method for involving yet another sense.

5. Use memory games (mnemonic devices)

Memory games, or mnemonic devices, are methods for remembering pieces of information using a simple association of common words. Most often people string together words to form a nonsense sentence that is easy to remember. The first letter of each word can then be used to stand for something else – the piece of information you’re trying to remember. The most common mnemonic device example is “Every Good Boy Deserves Fun.” Putting the first letters of every word together – EGBDF – gives a music student the five notes for treble clef.

The key to such memory devices is the new phrase or sentence you come up with has to be more memorable and easier to remember than the terms or information you’re trying to learn. These don’t work for everyone, so if they don’t work for you, don’t use them.

Mnemonic devices are helpful because you use more of your brain to remember visual and active images than you do to remember just a list of items. Using more of your brain means better memory.

6. Practice by yourself or with friends

The old age adage, practice makes perfect, is true. You can practice by yourself by testing yourself with either practice exams, past quizzes, or flash cards (depending what kind of course it is and what’s available). If a practice exam isn’t available, you can make one up for yourself and your classmates (or find someone who will). If a practice or old exam from a course is available, use it as a guide – do not study to the practice or old exam! (Too many students treat such exams as the real exams, only to be disappointed when the real exam has none of the same questions). Such exams help you understand the breadth of content and types of questions to expect, not the actual material to study for.

Some people enjoy reviewing their materials with a group of friends or classmates. Such groups work best when they’re kept small (4 or 5 others), with people of similar academic aptitude, and with people taking the same class. Different formats work for different groups. Some groups like to work through chapters together, quizzing one another as they go through it. Others like to compare class notes, and review materials that way, ensuring they haven’t missed any critical points. Such study groups can be helpful for many students, but not all.

7. Make a schedule you can stick to

Too many people treat studying as the thing to do when you get around to it or have some spare time. But if you schedule study time just as your class time is scheduled, you’ll find it becomes much less of a hassle in the long run. Instead of last-minute cramming sessions, you’ll be better prepared because you haven’t put off all the studying into one 12-hour marathon. Spending 30 or 60 minutes every day you have a class studying for that class before or after is a lot easier and will allow you to actually learn more of the material.

You should study regularly throughout the semester for as many classes as you can. Some people study every day, others put it off to once or twice a week. The frequency isn’t as important as actually studying on a regular basis. Even if you just crack open a book once a week for a class, it’s better than waiting until the first exam in a massive cram session.

Scheduling is even more important if you’re going to be a part of a study group. If only half of your members are committed to a study group for every meeting, then you need to find other study group members who are as committed as you are.

8. Take breaks (and rewards!)

Because so many people view studying as a chore or task, it’s human nature to avoid it. If, however, you find rewards to help reinforce what you’re doing, you may be pleasantly surprised by the change you may find in your attitude over time.

Rewards start by chunking study time into manageable components. Studying for 4 hours at a time with no breaks is not realistic or fun for most people. Studying for 1 hour, and then taking a 5 minute break and grabbing a snack is usually more sustainable and enjoyable. Divide study time into segments that make sense and work for you. If you have to digest a whole textbook chapter, find sections in the chapter and commit to reading and taking notes on one section at a time. Maybe you only do one section in a sitting, maybe you do two. Find the limits that seem to work for you.

If you succeed in your goals (such as doing two sections of a chapter in one sitting), give yourself a real reward. Perhaps it’s saying, “I’ll treat myself to some good dessert tonight at dinner,” or “I can buy a new tune online,” or “I can spend an extra 30 minutes gaming for every 2 sections of a book chapter I read.” The point is to find a reward that is small but real, and to stick to it. Some may view this as absurd, since you’re setting limits you can easily ignore. But by setting these limits on your behavior, you’re actually teaching yourself discipline, which will be a handy skill to have throughout life.

9. Keep healthy and balanced

It’s hard to live a balanced life while in school, I know. But the more balance you seek out in your life, the easier every component in your life becomes. If you spend all of your time focusing on a relationship or a game, you can see how easy it is to be out of balance. When you’re out of balance, the things you’re not focusing on – such as studying – become that much harder. Don’t spend all of your time studying – have friends, keep in touch with your family, and find interests outside of school that you can pursue and enjoy.

Finding balance isn’t really something that can be taught, it’s something that comes with experience and simply living. But you can work to try and keep your health and body balanced, by doing what you already know – exercise regularly and eat right. There are no shortcuts to health. Vitamins and herbs might help you in the short-term, but they’re not substitute for real, regular meals and a dose of exercise every now and again (walking to class is a start, but only if you’re spending an hour or two a day doing it).

Look at vitamins and herbs as they are intended – as supplements to your regular, healthy diet. Common herbs – such as ginkgo, ginseng, and gotu kola – may help you enhance mental abilities, including concentration, aptitude, behavior, alertness and even intelligence. But they may not, either, and you shouldn’t rely on them instead of studying regularly.

10. Know what the expectations are for the class

Different professors and teachers have different expectations from their students. While taking good notes and listening in class (and attending as many of the classes as you can) are good starts, you can do one better by spending some time with the instructor or professor’s assistant. Talking to the instructor early on – especially if you foresee a difficult course ahead – will help you understand the course requirements and the professor’s expectations. Maybe most students in the class are expected to get a “C” because the material is so difficult; knowing that ahead of time helps set your expectations, too.

Pay attention in class. If the instructor writes something on the whiteboard or displays it on the screen, it’s important. But if they say something, that’s important too. Copy these things down as they’re presented, but don’t zone out completely from what the instructor is also saying. Some students focus on the written materials without regard for what the instructor is saying. If you write down only one aspect of the professor’s instructions (e.g., just what they write down), you’re probably missing about half the class.

If you get a particularly bad grade on a paper or exam, talk to the instructor. Try and understand where things went wrong, and what you can do in the future to help reduce it from happening again.

Don’t forget to learn!

Studying isn’t just about passing an exam, as most students look at it as. Studying is an effort to actually learn things, some of which you might actually care about. So while you’ll have to take your share of classes that have little or nothing to do with your interests, you should still look for interesting things to take away from every experience.

By the time you’ll realize what a great opportunity school is, you’ll be well into the middle of your life with a lot of responsibilities – children, mortgages, career pressures, etc. Then most people have neither the time nor energy to go back to school. So take the time to learn some stuff now, because you’ll appreciate the opportunity later on.

Electrical Engineering – Career, Scope and Growth Prospects

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Students after 12th Class aims to join one of the reputed engineering institutes to get a degree. Out of the many engineering branches available, Electrical Engineering is the most sought after choice students opt for. It is due to a variety of reasons why many students prefer electrical engineering.


Electrical Engineering is one of the fastest growing fields that involves study and application of electricity and electronics. It is the most interesting branch of engineering because it involves study of computer, electrical and electronics and communication. Electrical engineering deals with generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.


In order to be an electrical engineer, aspirants need to clear IIT JEE (previously known as AIEEE). After clearing the entrance test, candidates can apply for the following courses.

  • B.E / B. Tech in Electrical & Electronics Engineering
  • B. Tech in Elements of Electrical Engineering
  •  B.E in Electrical Department
  •  B. Tech in Electrical Engineering
  • B. Tech in Electronics & Instrumentation
  • M.Tech in Fibre Optics and Light wave Engineering
  •  M.Tech in Digital Systems & Comp. Electronics
  • M.E/M.Tech in Electrical Engineering
  • Ph. D in Electrical Engineering
  • Diploma in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
  • Diploma in House Electrician.


    In order to be appointed as an electrical engineer, a candidate must have a B.E/B. Tech degree in Electrical Engineering. A candidate with master’s degree in Electrical Engineering holds the highest designation and earns relatively better salary package.

    Electrical Engineers can be appointed as Design Engineer, Quality Control Engineer, Test Engineer, Reliability Engineer, Process and Manufacturing Engineer etc.


    Electrical Engineers are much in demand in India. In the recent years, from house to companies every where there is a necessity of electricity to function, offering numerous opportunities to electrical engineers.

    These engineers can work in atomic power plants, hydel or thermal power plants. Job opportunities are ample in both private and public sector like railways, civil aviation, electricity board and utility companies, electrical design and consultancy firms and all types of manufacturing industries.

    After getting a degree in electrical engineering, they can also go into teaching field or join a research lab. Teaching career is also rewarding, with job in top engineering colleges of India offers attractive remuneration packages.

    Companies like ABB, Bajaj International Private Ltd, Crompton Greaves Limited, Siemens Ltd, Reliance Power Ltd, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), Coal India Limited (CIL), Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL), Centre for Electronics Design and Technology and Wipro Lighting are the biggest employers hiring Electrical Engineers.


    Today, electrical engineers are much in demand due to the rising demand for electrical energy, the growth of audio and visual communication systems and automation in the industry.

    An Electrical Engineer is expected to undertake the following duties:

    • Design and develop more efficient electrical machinery
    • Control Equipment for electricity generation
    • Guide and organize manufacturing, construction, installation, maintenance, support, documentation and testing to assure conformation with specifications, codes and customer requisites.
    • Transmission and distribution of electrical energy and telecommunication.

    The job profile may differ from company to company. However, in general an electrical engineer is expected to do the above tasks.


    The salary range of electrical engineers differs as per industry, location and their qualifications. An electrical engineer earns an average salary of INR 426, 384 per annum. The average salary of a design engineer is INR 453, 235 per year. The salary increases with your experience in the industry.

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Horticulture Career Scope, Eligibility and Job Prospects

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One of the options that you have after completing you Class XII is pursuing B.Sc. in Horticulture. It is the science which deals with science of cultivation of flowers, vegetable, fruits, herbs, shrubs, bushes, ornamental trees and landscaping for gardens green houses, gardens, orchards and plantations and also floriculture or cultivation of flowers. There are further some subjects that are studied under the course which deals; such as vegetable science, production harvesting, landscape architecture, plantation crops, floriculture.

Horticulture Course Eligibility

To pursue a Bachelor’s course in Horticulture Sciences, one needs to be a Class XII pass out with the combination of physics, chemistry and mathematics/ biology/ agriculture. One can apply for either a bachelor’s in Horticulture or Agricultural Science.

In order to pursue a Master’s degree, one must complete his Undergraduate in 60 per cent plus marks. Also the graduation should be in the in same or related streams. For instance, in order to get admission to MA in Pomology; Floriculture and Landscaping; or Vegetable Crops a B.Sc degree in Agriculture or Horticulture is required.

Horticulture Career Prospects

A lot of students choose the Horticulture studies in India. Since agriculture deals with plant breeding which is late on consumed by human beings so it has a lot of scope in terms of career opportunities. Thanks to modernization it is no longer a study of land owners or of the needy. The course with developments has brought with itself the wide variety of job opportunists in the public andprivate enterprises.

Although both the private and public sectors offer a good remuneration to its employees but the private sector is better rewarding. A person at the top of his game can be paid lucratively as the industry is growing rapidly and there is great need of good quality plants, flowers, fruits. Also the advent of technology has brought with itself the need for more sophisticated products which can be less perishable than their counter parts. Also the export industry is helping build up the amount of available jobs.

Horticulturists and Landscapers are employed in resorts, hotels, and in health farms in order to decorate their settings. Postgraduate students can work as supervisors, researcher, distributors, and engineer; or they can also start his/her own business.

Career Options and Oppurtunities in Horticulture

There are opportunities in:

  • Corporations: Agriculturists from this sector can seek employment in Warehousing
    Corporation and Food Corporation, State Farm Corporation and National Seed Corporation.
  • Estates and tea gardens: There are ample of opportunities in estates and tea gardens which also offer great remuneration.
  • Agricultural Engineering: This sector deals with conservation of soil and water, power, agricultural machines, and farm structures. Engineering graduates can venture into this field.
  • Agriculture Management: Students possessing knowledge of management and agriculture are the need of this industry and can venture into estates and tea gardens.
  • Agro-industry Sector: This sector revolves around dairy processing, meat packaging, grain processing, fats and oils, production, fibers, pesticides and other such products. There is scope for great research in this field and also requires sales and promotion, technologists, scientists, as well as in production
  • Services Sector: this field revolves around fertilizers, seeds and chemicals at reasonable price and also to provide quality food products.
  • Self employment: Like most other industries graduates can start his/her own business such as agriculture product shops, agri-base industry, etc.

One can also venture into farming, conservation, seri-culture, agri-business, research, agricultural education, agricultural journalism and many more.

Colleges/ Universities for Horticulture

  • Kerala Agricultural University
  • University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
  • Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth
  • University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwar
  • Annamalai University
  • Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Allahabad
  • Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Ananthapur
  • Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatre
  • Calcutta University, Kolkata
  • Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University

Interested in investment banking?

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The lowdown
If you are interested in making money out of money, then you should seriously consider making a career out of investment banking. In other words, investment banking is essentially about matching the expectations of people who have the capital with people who need the capital. This can be structured at various stages of the life cycle of a venture starting from the ideating stage to the listing at stock markets. An investment banker advises clients on various options such as mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures etc. to optimise valuation. Since the investment rate in the economy has been a bit sluggish over the last one year due to concerns about political economy, the investment banking sector has reflected the same pace in its growth. However, this is also the time when a lot of work is being done in deal development that would translate to a healthy pipeline in the ensuing years. Investment banking has a huge prospect for growth in an emerging economy like India due to the presence of vast untapped sectors, high entrepreneurial energy and innovation possibilities for structuring win/win solutions

The day begins in the morning, around 8 and usually there are no fixed timings. On most days, it is a 12 to 14 hour work day spent doing research, analytics, reading, meetings, presentations, networking, team building etc. It also involves around 10 working days of travel in a month. A typical day in the life of an investment banking professional:
8am: Day begins in office
9am: Significant time spent on con-calls/skype calls across time zones
Noon: Brief the team members, prepare a report
8pm: Leave for home

The payoff
On an average, a fresher in this domain can expect a package of Rs 20 lakh per annum and there is no upper limit on pay scale as the same is directly proportionate to the value contribution of the professional to the size and value of the deals

* High research/analytical frame of mind
* Top of the line communication
* Widely read and informed and thinking out of the box – a natural innovator
* Should have ability to handle difficult situations and offer timely troubleshooting
* Should have a flair for analysing figures and forecast sales and budget
* Should have sound technical knowledge
* Should have good command over the English language

Getting there
One can follow this sector from any stream – science, commerce or arts. However, it is important to have competency in maths, economics and business studies on the path. A bachelor’s degree in business administration is a usual pre-requisite. You can follow it up with an MBA or choose to get some work experience. Either ways, you will learn a lot

Institutes and URLs
* Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi
* Shaheed Sukhdev College of Business Studies, Delhi University
* Guru Gobind Singh College of Commerce, Delhi University
* Faculty of Management Studies, Delhi University
* Faculty of Management Studies, Delhi University
* Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai
* IXLRI, School of Business and Human Resources, Jharkhand
* Institute of Management and Technology, Ghaziabad
* Indian Institutes of Management, Multiple Locations

Pros and cons
* Extremely challenging and intellectually stimulating job
* Money is good
* The profession can open the Path to  entrepreneurship
* Helps in networking
* High-pressure job
* Involves long hours
* Excessive competition

In an emerging economy like India, prospects for investment bankers are very bright. Vast potential in entrepreneurial activity and various innovation possibilities make it attractive for those who want to join the industry Anoop Sharma, former Investment Banker (HSBC) based in Delhi


Plastic Surgeon Education Requirements and Career Information

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Essential Information

Plastic surgeons are medical doctors who reconstruct and improve the physical appearances of patients by performing cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. Plastic surgeons must complete extensive graduate work, including medical school, residencies and possibly fellowships. After completing their residencies, plastic surgeons must become licensed to practice.

Required Education Doctor of Medicine
Other Requirements Physician licensure, residency and fellowship, board certification
Projected Job Growth 18% from 2012-2022 for all physicians and surgeons*

Plastic Surgeon Educational Requirements

Most prospective plastic surgeons complete undergraduate degrees prior to attending medical school. Although bachelor’s degrees in any major are acceptable, premedical students must complete certain prerequisite courses, including chemistry, biology and physics. The first two years of medical school, referred to as the preclinical years, teach students the fundamentals of body systems, diseases and patient care. The final two years are the clinical years and place students in healthcare facilities to perform clinical rotations. Surgery is a required rotation and some schools offer clerkships in plastic surgery.

After graduating from medical school, individuals typically have two options when selecting residency programs. Some schools offer combined general and plastic surgery programs that last around six years, while others offer 2- or 3-year plastic surgery residencies independently and require individuals to first complete at least three years in general surgery residencies. Residency programs incorporate training in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery while allowing residents greater independence than that of medical students.

Plastic surgeons who wish to work in subspecialties, such as hand or head and neck surgery, will then need to undergo fellowships. These programs typically last one year and provide more narrowly focused training with increased responsibility in treatment program management. Fellows also have opportunities to conduct research.

Licensing Requirements

All physicians, including plastic surgeons, must be licensed to practice. While state regulations vary, a universal requirement is successfully passing the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) or Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Exam (COMLEX), which test individuals on their knowledge of diseases and patient care. Plastic surgeons who seek optional board certification must pass an exam administered by the American Board of Plastic Surgery or the American Osteopathic Board of Surgery after completing their residencies.

Career Information

Plastic surgeons may perform either cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. Cosmetic plastic surgery involves procedures that serve only to change an individual’s appearance. Such procedures may include tummy tucks, hair restoration and breast augmentation. Reconstructive plastic surgeons work with abnormal conditions caused by birth defects or accidents, such as a cleft palates and scars.

Similar to other surgeons, plastic surgeons consult with patients and family members to explain procedures prior to operating. Many surgeons work more than 40 hours a week and may be called in on short notice for emergencies. During surgical procedures, they work within teams with other medical professionals, including surgical assistants and nurses.

Careers in Copy Writing

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Copywriting means writing content for newspapers, radio, and television and on-road media for marketing and advertising purposes. Copywriting is not restricted to writing factually correct content, but also drafting the promotional material in a very creative and effective manner. In order to persuade the consumers to buy the products of their clients, advertising firms are always in need of quality copywriters, who are capable of producing the most effective content for promotions and marketing. To become a good and effective copywriter, one should follow certain rules and principles, including writing catchy headlines and promo lines, writing in a short and crisp manner, and writing with strong visualization skills. On the whole, all the work is done strategically in copywriting. Many educational institutes in India conduct courses in copywriting. After pursuing courses related to copy writing, one can directly enter the professional world and work as a copywriter for any advertising firm or marketing department of an organization.

Course Details
Due to stiff competition in the advertising industry, many educational institutes have started offering courses related to this field, generally at the postgraduate and postgraduate diploma levels, to produce proficient copywriters. One can also get enrolled into certificate and short-term courses in copywriting. Fluency in grammar and vocabulary of the language are the essentials while opting for copywriting. In addition to this, he/she should have good sense of creativity and wit. Any graduate in any stream, from a recognized university, is eligible for choosing copywriting as his/her career.

Career Prospects
The scope of copywriting is vast. Advertising agencies are always on a hunt for efficient copywriters who can convey their messages (about the product or service) in the most creative and effective manner. Apart from ad agencies, copywriters are also required for newspapers and by business firms. After starting off as a junior copywriter, one can become a senior copywriter in any reputed organization.

Top Colleges Offering UG/PG/Other Courses
Many educational institutes in India offer courses in copywriting, due to its mere popularity. Among the top institutes conducting programs in copywriting, some are: Institute of Copywriting, New Delhi; Centre for Research in Art of Film & Television (CRAFT), New Delhi; Pranah Institute of Advertising Copywriting, New Delhi; and Atlantis IMC, Mumbai.

A junior copywriter can earn around Rs. 7000 to Rs. 10,000 per month. Many leading advertising agencies pay anywhere between Rs. 15,000 and Rs. 25,000 a month to senior copywriters.

Career in Commerce after 12th-Job Opportunities in Commerce

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With the positive changing scenario around the world in the realm of economic activity, selecting Commerce as a career option is one of the best to grab. Commerce students get familiar with knowledge of business, trade, market fluctuation, basics of economics, fiscal policies, industrial policies, share market, stock markets, etc.  Considering the burgeoning activity of market, talented commerce graduate are needed to make a balance in the demand and supply.

Commerce Course Details

  • After passing the 12th standard from Commerce stream from recognised board, one may enroll for Bachelor of Commerce (B. Com) degree. Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com) is a full time three year degree course.
  • One can also pursue Postgraduate course (M. Com) in Commerce. For this, one has to successfully passed Bachelor of Commerce (B. Com) degree from a recognised University.
  • During their course, the students have to study the following branches of Commerce such as Finance, Business Administration, Accountancy, E-Commerce, Economics and Marketing.

Courses Available after 12th Commerce

Job Oriented Career Options in Commerce

Gone are the days when Bachelor in Commerce course offers two major options-B.Com with Accountancy and B.Com with Management. However, with the requirements of the industry, some specialised disciplines are available with Commerce. Students now can specialise in Bachelor in Accountancy and Finance (BAF), Bachelor in Banking and Insurance (BBI) and Bachelor in Financial Markets (BFM). One can also get a good placement after successfully completing the B.Com course and Advanced Diploma in Tourism and Travel Management. After completing these courses, the graduates often have the opportunity of campus placements where salary between 3.00 to 9.00 lakh are offered.

MA Degree in Commerce

Post Graduate in Commerce placed you at a better advantageous position than B.Com as far as job market is concerned. MA in Commerce provides you wide ranges of opportunities in the field  such as teaching, civil service exam, higher education, banking sector, broking, research, actuarial sciences, financial institutions, and in the domain of economics. One can also pursue Ph.D. after completing MA in Commerce for the purpose of higher education and teaching profession. Better options are also opened at Cost Accountants, Company Secretary and Chartered Accountant.

Career Prospects in Commerce

The career prospects in commerce and its interdisciplinary domains such as Banking, Chartered Accountancy, Company Secretary, Economics, Stock Broking, Cost Work and Accountancy, and Agricultural Economics are extremely bright. B.Com along with Chartered Accountancy or MBA will pay you to a larger extent. These degrees will able to pay you to have a good position in public and private organisations. If you are ambitious and hardworking, you may also make your niche in the field if financial engineering. Choosing CA after 12th is interesting and challenging options. It shouldn’t club with B.Com or other courses. After graduation in commerce, one can choose M.Com, Business Economics, Finance Control, MA Economics MA operational and Research Statistics at Postgraduate level.

Career Options in Commerce

  • Accountant
  • Accountant Executive
  • Chartered Accountant
  • Company secretary
  • Cost Accountant
  • Finance Analyst
  • Finance Planner
  • Finance Manager
  • Finance Controller
  • Finance Consultant
  • Investment Analyst
  • Stock Broker
  • Portfolio Manager
  • Tax Auditor
  • Tax Consultant
  • Auditor
  • Statistician
  • Economist

Job Opportunity in Commerce

More or less, all the organisations have financial managers, treasurers, controller, credit manager, and other financial staff who made their financial reports for tax and other requirements. The employment opportunities in commerce fields are lucrative. The door of both private and public organisation is open for commerce graduates. They may work in this organisation as Manager, Auditors, Specialist, Consultant, Management Executive, Account Executive, Junior Accountant, CA, Book Keeper, Entrepreneur etc.  The importance of commerce graduates further increases after sea changes in various parameters of Indian Economy like bank deposits, mutual funds, stock markets, venture capital, insurance schemes and portfolio management. Teaching may also be one of the options after pursuing higher studies.

Main Employers

  • Public Organisations
  • Big Business houses/firms
  • Small Business houses,firms
  • Finance and Leasing
  • Banks
  • MNCs
  • TNCs
  • BPOs
  • KPOs
  • Software industry, etc.

Salary in Commerce Field

To a larger extent, the remuneration in the field of commerce depends upon area of specialisation and your institutions. At the entry level, Salary starts from 15, 000-20, 000. Since, the significance of commerce has increased manifolds, post Liberalization, Privatisation and Globalization (LPG) era, the experience and knowledgeable candidates are getting handsome salary.

Colleges offers Commerce Courses

There are many colleges and Institutes, which are offering commerce degrees. Here given the list of some of the top 10 Commerce Institutions in India.

  1. Shri Ram College of Commerce (SRCC), Delhi
  2. Loyola College, Chennai
  3. St. Xavier’s College, Kolkata
  4. Presidency College, Chennai
  5. Symbiosis Society’s College of Arts & Commerce, Pune
  6. St. Joseph’s College, Bangalore
  7. Narsee Monjee College of Commerce & Economics, Mumbai
  8. BM College of Commerce, Pune
  9. St. Xavier’s Mumbai
  10. College of Commerce, Patna